The article, by Istvan Vásáry, titled Kozákok és kazakok (Cossacks and Kazakhs) and is to be found in the Hungarian periodical Élet és Tudomány, 43, 22 December 1982.
Points to note are:
(I am indebted to Peter Kiraly for telling me about these pictures and for sending me copies.)
Click on a thumbnail see a somewhat larger image.
The instrument is apparently wire-strungnote the straight (moveable?) bridge and the strings continuing to a tail-piece; circular sound-hole or rose.
Note the resemblances with the lute (is this Stählin's halbe Laute, or Pandor?): lute-like bridge implies gut strings; chromatic (?) fretting; sickle-shaped pegbox.
Lute-like bridge implies gut strings; no frets; four strings only; violin-like scroll.
Another wire-strung (?) instrument; straight (moveable?) bridge (the strings cannot be seen continuing to a tail-piece); crude bent-back pegbox with pegs through from the back.
[Since this Introduction was originally written, the existence of a large number of Ukranian paintings of banduras from the 17th to 19th centuries has been brought to the authors attention by Dr Myroslava Mudrak of Ohio State University. These paintings, in a naive folk style, are illustrations of a well-known Ukranian legendary character, the Zaporizhian minstrel Cossack Mamai, who is almost always portrayed playing his bandora rather than engaging in the more characteristically Cossack pursuits of belligerent horsemanship. These early banduras are indeed lute-like, and are sometimes described as Kobzas, a name still associated with the Romanian wire-strung lute. Stählins use of the phrase half lute seems highly appropriate.
This page contains a small selection of such pictures supplied to the author by Peter Kiraly. But a larger number (including some of the same), with details of provenance, etc, can be found here. This is one of the pages of BRAMA, an interesting WWW site for Ukranian art and culture, which includes links to much historical and other information about the (modern) bandura.]
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